Some of the measures to control air pollution are as follows:
1. The forest cover should be protected by restricting deforestation and through adoption of afforestation programmes. Trees are the best controllers of air pollution. It is an accepted fact that at least 33 per cent of the land area should remain under forest/tree cover. It will help in containing air pollution and also help in maintaining, the ecological balance.
2. There must be a ‘green belt’ around every township and village. Similarly, industrial areas should be surrounded by green belts.
3. The main source of air pollution is the automobiles; therefore, their engines should be redesigned in such a way that their emissions cause minimum pollution. Several steps have been taken and some technology has also been developed, but still it is in a very preliminary stage.
Apart from technological changes, some steps on individual level should be taken by vehicle owners, such as:
(i) Regular service of the vehicle,
(ii) Change or replacement of old engines,
(iii) use of filters and after burner,
(iv) Engine should be well tuned, and
(v) Mixing of anti-tibs in diesel and petrol, etc.
4. The use of steam engine by the railways should be stopped or minimised. As far as possible, electrically operated rail engines should be used, this is pollution free.
5. In countries like India, traditional use of fuel wood, coal, etc., should be checked and newly devised smoke-free furnaces be used.
6. The industrial areas should be located at a certain distance from residential areas. The selection of the site should be done with consideration of air direction.
7. Steps should be taken for immediate check on forest fires.
8. In industries, arrangements for pollution control should be done. Only after full arrangement of effluent emission, permission for production should be accorded.
9. With the help of chemical reactions harmful effects of pollution can be controlled.
10. Some methods of controlling air pollution are filtering, settling, dissolving, absorption, etc. For these methods cheap devices should be developed.