Some important uses of marine system (Ocean) are outlined below:
(i) Potential food reserve:
The ocean acts as a potential food reserve. The protein requirement of world population is met by marine fishes.
(ii) Diverse biological form:
The ocean has varieties of species like phytoplanktons, dinoflagellates, zooplanktons, fishes of a number of types, crabs and several bentic flora and fauna.
(iii) Source of fuel:
The fuel sources like oils and natural gases are pettily available from the off shore areas. As per statistics, about 30% of world’s exploitable hydrocarbon is found below ocean water.
(iv) Lot of minerals:
A number of elements are present in sea water in their compound forms e.g. chlorine (55%), sodium (30.6%), sulphur (7.7%) along with trances of bromine, carbon, strontium, boron, silicon, nitrogen, lithium, rubidium, phosphorous, Zinc, aluminium, tin, molybdenum, copper etc. Now a day, only NaCl, Mg and Br2 are being extracted from sea or ocean using economic procedure.
(v) Source of energy:
A lot of energy can be generated from the tides and waves adopting suitable technique.
(vi) Vast area for commerce:
The ocean area can be used by the human being as a place of commerce in between different countries.
(vii) Diffuser of pollutants:
The ocean water acts, as a diffuser of pollutants (water pollutants and radioactive pollutant)
(viii) As a laboratory:
The ocean acts as a laboratory for the testing of different traditional and nuclear weapons.
(ix) Universal supplier of oxygen:
The living organisms present in ocean, release a lot of oxygen by photosynthesis which is used by the living organisms on the surface in the process of respiration.
(x) Major component of hydrologic cycle:
The ocean acts as a major component of hydrologic cycle which maintains climatic condition and ecological balance.
(xi) Novel drug sources:
The biological species present in ocean or sea can be used for the preparation of a number of novel drugs.
Rapid population explosion and higher tendency of human beings to become more and more civilized exert tremendous pressure on marine resources and the ocean is facing serious threats to maintain its standard.
The different stresses on marine resources may be outlined as follows:
(i) To provide food to increased population, there is extensive Fishing using motor boats, launches, trailers and ships. These devices are not only catching fishes but also destroying a number of living organisms in marine system.
(ii) Effluents released from different industries are discharged into marine system causing its pollution.
(iii) The municipal wastes are introduced in marine system causing its pollution.
(iv) The chemical pollutants and radioactive pollutants are also introduced into marine system.
(v) The testing of traditional and nuclear weapons on the surface of ocean causes potential hazards in aquatic environment.
Since the marine resources are very important for our food, energy, transportation, natural security etc. there should be proper Marine resource management so that the stress can be released to some extent.