This article throws light upon the twenty ways which can help in controlling pollution.
(1) By means of equipments, apart from disposal of pollutants, recycling of waste could also be done. In case of automobile exhaust system, suitable gadgets could also be provided which will not only arrest pollution but will also reduce fuel consumption.
(2) The generated pollutants from industries must be arrested before they are passed into the air. This involves selection of proper equipment for treating waste as well as arresting pollutants. The heat generated in the process should also be channelised to useful purposes.
(3) There are some industries which collect the dust and convert the same into saleable goods. There are others which produce the waste which could be converted into useful by products. We have in hand example of gobar gas plant where gas is converted into energy.
(4) The metal oxides and metals such as Cr, V, Cd, Cu, and Fe etc. can be easily absorbed by serpentine mineral or bark of some trees and thus effluent can be free from metallic species. A process has been developed in Water Pollution Lab.
(5) For the treatment of odourous air, the sketch of a plant has been suggested in the book – Air Pollution by Kudesia.
(6) For reducing the noise pollution, suggestions given above should be adopted at once.
(7) The Govt. should be persuaded to provide cleaner fuels for manufacture of smokeless coal briquettes by low temperature carbonization of poor quality lignites available locally.
(8) The Govt. should provide facilities to increase hydroelectric power wherever possible and bio gas production for rural areas to reduce pollution. The contribution of nuclear power is at present about 3% and it should be increased slowly by taking all precautions.
(9) The garbage in big cities should be treated with cobalt rays. This can reduce the pollution load to about 60% in cities.
(10) Incorporation of improved process design will increase the longevity of equipment. There should be deeper investigation in the process designs not only to achieve cost reduction or waste saving, but also the more important obligation to the society and the environment resulting in safeguarding the inhabitants’ health as well as the greeneries etc. in and around such industrial setups.
(11) Govt. should encourage scientific societies and scientific newspapers to create awareness among people about pollution and environment.
(12) Organic waste solid can be composted. The poisonous waste should be buried in the well-protected areas.
(13) Massive research and development effort should be instituted in the institutes of higher learning and by the Govt. so that appropriate, low cost and effective methods of pollution control can be achieved.
(14) Extensive training programmes should be set up to prepare technicians and scientist in pollution control for different types of industries.
(15) Encourage industries to avoid pollutant formation at the very source by use of cleaner fuels, the adoption of less polluting materials and technology in manufacture.
(16) Localise the spread of pollutants in the indoor working environment as for as possible.
(17) Allow discharge of pollutants to the ambient environment to the extent possible to benefit from disposal by dilution. (This involves proper site selection; availability of meteorological and other data, etc.).
(18) Require installation of control equipment only if possible; encourage installation through tax benefits.
(19) Prompt development of supporting infrastructures.
(20) Adoption of least polluting technology:
A similar strategy must be followed with regard to process emissions in order to reduce the every formation of pollutants by adopting the least polluting technology wherever possible. It is here that the various industry associations on best help themselves.
The USA, Japan and other OECD countries of Europe are currently actively engaged in reviewing their technology and are even undertaking process changes wherever feasible to reduce pollutant formation, or finding suitable methods for its dilution and treatment.