Some of the major characteristics of a community ecology are as follows: (a) Species Diversity (b) Growth From and structure (c) Dominance (d) Self reliance (e) Relative abundance (f) Trophic structure.
Community ecology deals with the group of various kinds of population in the areas. A group of several species (plants/ animals) living together with mutual tolerance in a natural area is called as a community.
A forest, a pond and a desert are natural communities. A community has its own structure, development history and behaviours.
The community has the following characteristics:
(a) Species Diversity:
Each community consists of different organisms like plants, animals, microbes etc. They differ taxonomically from each other. This species diversity may be regional or local.
(b) Growth From and structure:
Community can be analysed ‘ in terms of major growth forms like trees, shrubs, herbs etc. In each growth from as in trees, there may be different kinds of plants as-broad leave trees, evergreen trees etc. These different growth forms determine the structural pattern of a community.
All species are not equally important in each community. The nature of the community is determined by a few species in a community. These limited species have control and dominating influence in the community.
(d) Self reliance:
Each community has a group of autotrophic plants as well as heterotrophic animals. The autotrophic plants are self dependent.
(e) Relative abundance:
Different populations in a community exist in relative proportions and this idea is called as relative abundance.
(f) Trophic structure:
Each community has a trophic structure that determines the flow of energy and material from plants to herbivores to carnivores.