Environmental Management: Concept, Scope and Aspects of Environmental Management!
Concept of Environmental Management:
The ecological balance and ecosystem stability are duly maintained by the nature itself but the emergence of modern industrial era has disturbed the ecological balance through heavy industrialization, technological revolution, faster growth of means of transportation, rapacious exploitation of resources, unplanned urbanization etc..
In other words, the anthropogenic activities of modern ‘economic and technological’ man have disturbed the harmonious relationships between the environment and human beings. Environmental management is thus, the process to improve the relationship between the human beings and environment which may be achieved through check on destructive activities of man, conservation, protection, regulation and regeneration of nature.
The process, environmental management is related to the rational adjustment of man with nature involving judicious exploitation and utilization of natural resources without disturbing the ecosystem balance and ecosystem equilibrium.
If the natural resources are overexploited, it will affect socio-economic development of a nation. Thus, environmental management must take into consideration the ecological principles and socioeconomic needs of the society i.e., it involves socio economic developments on one hand and maintenance of environmental quality on other hand.
From the above discussion, it is clear that environmental managements has two major aspects:
(i) Socio-economic development and
(ii) Stability of biosphere in general and stability of individual ecosystems in particular (C.C. Park 1981).
Scope and Aspects of Environmental Management:
Environmental management is very wide in scope and includes all the technical, economical and other aspects of environment.
The broader objectives of environmental management includes:
(i) To identify the environmental problem and to find its solution.
(ii) To restrict and regulate the exploitation and utilization of natural resources.
(iii) To regenerate degraded environment and to renew natural resources (renewable)
(iv) To control environmental pollution and gradation.
(v) To reduce the impacts of extreme events and natural disaster.
(vi) To make optimum utilization of natural resources.
(vii) To assess the impacts of proposed projects and activities on environment.
(viii) To review and revise the existing technologies and make them ecofriendly.
(ix) To formulate laws for the implementation of environmental protection and conservation programmes.
The components of environmental management are based on five fundamental aspects.
1. Environmental perception and public awareness:
The environmental perception and public awareness considers the following points:
(a) Sources of environmental perception and public awareness.
(b) Level of environmental perception.
(c) Role of environmental perception in environmental planning and management.
2. Environmental education and training:
Environmental education and training should be given at school, college and University levels by professionals.
3. Resource management:
The resource management considers the following points:
(i) Classification of natural resources
(ii) Survey and evaluation of ecological resources
(iii) Preservation of resources
(iv) Conservation of resources
4. Control of Environmental degradation and pollution:
The environmental degradation and pollution can be checked by considering the following points:
(i) Control of environmental degradation and pollution.
(ii) Adopting suitable preventive mechanisms to reduce natural hazards and disaster.
(iii) Regeneration of degraded environment.
5. Environmental impact assessment:
The environmental impact assessment involves:
(i) Appraisal of existing environmental conditions
(ii) Appraisal of existing and proposed production methods
(iii) Methologies and procedures
(iv) Probable impacts of existing and proposed project.
(v) Review of technology and required improvement.