Various national and international agencies have presented estimates regarding water consumption in industries in the Indian context. According to Ministry of Water Resources, about 40 billion cubic metre water is used in industrial areas of the country, which is about 6 per cent of total availability of water.
According to Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India, about 500 billion cubic metre water out of the total available fresh water is used in industries annually. Out of this, about 10 billion cubic metres water is used by processing industries and 30 billion cubic metres is used for refrigeration purposes.
Thus, this part of water used for industries comes to about 6 per cent of total available water in the country. On the other side, according to World Bank, the demand of water for industrial use and power generation is increasing at the rate of 42 per cent per annum.
By the year 2025 it would become 228 billion cubic metres as compared to only 67 billion cubic metres in 1999. Thus, water used in industries is about 13 per cent of total available fresh water at present. It is clear from different estimates that demand for water in industries has been continuously increasing.
Need for Rational Use:
The effect of increasing demand for water by industries is caused on balanced availability of water resources in two ways- first, to maintain organized supply of its increasing demand and second, to maintain the quality of water in its natural form, so that balanced availability is maintained in all sectors. But due to increasing industrialization, such possibility seems very little because water used in industries is proving to be a double-edged sword harming both the sides.
Thus, it has become a cause for worry to maintain quantity as well as quality of water. For that, different industries should be categorized. Water may be reused by recycling and similar category of water may be utilized according to level of industry.
Fresh water may not be directly used in every category of industry. Various studies have clarified that small and medium industries are polluting water to the maximum extent. Central Pollution Control Board has given an estimate of waste water disposed of by industries and similar type of research has also been conducted by the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), New Delhi.