This article throws light upon the nine main types of harmful effluents discharged from industries. The types are: 1. Acids 2. Discharge of Nitrogen Dioxide 3. Alkalies 4. Pesticides 5. Toxic Chemical 6. Fluorides 7. Toxic Metals 8. Fertilizers 9. Oil.
Harmful Effluent # 1. Acids:
Various acid manufacture industries discharge acidic effluent which not only make the land infertile but as make the water of the river acidic. The high acidity has caused stomach diseases and skin ailments in the bodies of human beings.
Harmful Effluent # 2. Discharge of Nitrogen Dioxide:
Many industries release SO2 in the air as pollutant which on reaction with rain water converts into sulphurous acid and gets precipitated in the fields and rivers thus destroying the vegetation and drinking water sources.
These are some industries which discharge nitrogen dioxide also in the air and so cause precipitation of nitrous acid in the fields and rivers which ultimately cause pollution. This pollution has also caused respiratory disorders and other ailments of lungs and heart in the human body.
Harmful Effluent # 3. Alkalies:
There are alkali manufacture or textile industries which discharge alkaline effluents causing infertility of the soil and render the water useless for human beings. They destroy the flora and fauna of the vicinity.
Harmful Effluent # 4. Pesticides:
There are thousands of pesticides in the market. They either contaminate the water by phosphate or chloride along with increase of BOD, COD, Sulphate and nitrates. There are some pesticides which cause BOD even to the range of 20,000 – 30,000 mg/1. The dangerous pesticides such as DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, benzene etc. are harmful for the aquatic life and human beings.
Some years back due to leakage of methyl isocyanate from a pesticide factory at Bhopal, about 20,000 persons were crippled and about 15,000 died within a couple of days. This is the worst example of air pollution in the world from a pesticide factory situated in India.
Harmful Effluent # 5. Toxic Chemicals:
The chemical industries discharge various toxic chemicals in the fields causing destruction of vegetation, soil and water. They should discharge effluent after proper treatment otherwise the life on this planet will be difficult. They release even cyanides in the fields due to which at one time about 50,000 fishes were died in Meerut in Kali River in 1984.
Harmful Effluent # 6. Fluoride:
These industries discharges lot of fluorides in the fields without any treatment due to which people suffer from mental and stomach ailments. Fluoride also reduces production in fields.
Harmful Effluent # 7. Toxic Metals:
The metal industries discharge various metals, metallic oxides, other slag causing metallic pollution in the air, water and soil. The toxic metals percolate in the ground water slowly and slowly and cause enteric diseases and mental disorders.
Harmful Effluent # 8. Fertilizers:
The fertilizer industries either discharge sulphur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide in the air and both cause acid rain or destroy the growth of trees, fruits, vegetables and even grasses. The effluent of these industries is also harmful and must be discharged after proper treatment.
Harmful Effluent # 9. Oil:
Oil industry discharge oil directly into the sea due to which sea kingdom has been completely disturbed. Marine pollution must be stopped immediately. In short, all big industries such as Rubber, Textile, Rayon, Steel, Titanium dioxide etc. release harmful pollutants in the air and discharge toxic effluents which are harmful to aquatic life and human beings.
It is the duty of all of us to raise voice against direct discharge of industrial effluents into rivers or in the fields or nullahas (without any treatment). Govt. should take immediate steps to check them with all powers at their command otherwise Hiroshima and Nagasaki will be repeated in every country and deform or cripple child will be born in future.