In this essay we will discuss about the habitats of various wild birds across the World. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. New Bird from Andes of Peru 2. The Vanishing Wild Lands 3. The Fragile Ecosystem of Chidderwala 4. The Habitats of Tailor Birds 5. The Long Tailed Birds 6. Loss of Moisture Loving Plants 7. Katra Siyaraa 8. The Valleys of Wild Birds.
Essay # 1. New Bird from Andes of Peru:
i. A Strange Bird:
The black spectacled brush finch found in the Andes of central Peru has been seen after a long time. Earlier this bird was not seen in the wild of Andes. The bird Atlapetes melanops inhabits the humid shrubs on both sides of the deep canyon formed where the Rio mantaro intersects the eastern Andean ridge and probably has a very limited area of inhabitation. Some birds like the humid scrubs and moisturous bushes which breed insects for the small birds.
ii. Pale-Headed Brush Finch:
Some small and large birds have been spotted in some parts of the world after a long period of interval. Earlier, it was thought that some of the birds have been disappeared from the forests, heathlands and mountain valleys. But some of them still survive and have been spotted in the wild.
The pale-headed brush finch is a beautiful small bird from southern Ecuador patch forests. The brush finch Atlapetes pallidiceps which had not been recorded since 1969 has been rediscovered. The six individuals of them were seen in the ancient patch forests of southern Ecuador.
Essay # 2. The Vanishing Wild Lands:
The European wild lands and meadons are disappearing at an alarming rate. The wild grasses, flowering plants and herbs have been disappeared in the last three decades. The main reason is global warming and urbanisation process.
The population of butterflies is under constant threat. There are some 576 species which are under direct threat. Some 17 species are threatened at global level and 52 at European level. The main threat comes from agricultural changes and land development for farming or housing.
Essay # 3. The Fragile Ecosystem of Chidderwala:
Honey Birds of Chidderwala:
Chidderwala is a beautiful village of Dehradun district situated in between Saung River and Toya River on National Highway Nepalifarm (Doiwala) Dehradun. The honey birds of the village are quite popular among the ornithologists and bird watchers. In the year 1984, there were some 200 pairs in the area but after 1999, the number began to decline to 20 pairs (male female) ten times decline in the population.
Global warming, habitat loss and growing human pollution have caused the bird population decrease in the valleys and forests of Raja Ji National Park and Saung River banks. Flowering bushes, long stalked flowers and spiraling plants with sweet honey flowers have been vanished away in the past three decades.
The flowering bushes in Toya river marsh, Saung river and Bhambhak rivulet have disappeared in the area since 1971. The ornithologists and biologists say that the global warming is the main reason for the disappearance of the flowering bushes of Chidderwala, Doiwala and Raiwala.
The flower honey is the main food of honey birds. In the past one decade, we have seen continuous decrease in the nests of honey birds in the gardens, agricultural fields and forests. The nests were located in the river banks only as there were some flowering bushes. The honey birds make their nests 100 meters way from the flowering bushes.
Essay # 4. The Habitats of Tailor Birds:
The Terai region of Uttaranchal is full of amazing birds. The small birds mainly depend on insects, fruits and flower honey. One of the most important birds is Tailor bird which is an expert in weaving nests into a very beautiful way.
It folds two leaves of a tree and sews it into a fine way to make a beautiful nest. Sometime other species make their nests on the sugarcane leaves or elephant grass leaves by weaving green threads of the leaves. The habitat loss has made them more vulnerable to survive.
The Red Crow:
The black-red crow is found in the sugarcane fields of Terai region. The voice of the crow is like wild fowl but its shape and size is like a common large crow found in the forests near wetlands.
This bird makes a large Bhadoo like nest in the river bank bushes and lays four eggs. After hatching the eggs within ten days, the baby birds fly away with the mother. This bird has become a rare one in Teria areas.
Essay # 5. The Long Tailed Birds:
The Karaoon (Magpies) of Tharoch Valley:
The Karaoon is found in large numbers near the river banks and valleys. In Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh, there are some beautiful river valleys known for white paradise and large magpie birds. We can locate them near Tharoch and Bharmana valleys near Chaupal and Nerwa city. Karaoon and Saraoon are two species of magpie. One is blue magpie and the other is red brown magpie found in the warm valleys. These birds make their nests on the trees grown on the high rocks and remain safe from the prey birds. The birds have become rare because of disappearing bushes and trees.
Goathoo (Wild Cat):
This wild Cat preys on birds, rabbits and other small animals in the forests. This wild cat, the mother of domestic cat is found in the forests of Dehradun, pine (pinus himalayensis) and oak forests in Himachal and Uttaranchal. This has been spotted in the forests of Chaupal (338 square kilometers), Tharoch and the Pastures of Taalraa.
Hataal (Ataal) River Valley:
Hataal River valley between the border of Himachal and Uttaranchal is known for its rich bio-diversity. In the last three decades, several small mammals, reptiles, song birds, magpies, weasels, mongoose, wild cats and various other animals have been vanished away because of global warming and loss of moisture. The level of pollution in the rivers and streams has increased ten times. This has led to the disappearance of fresh water fishes, crabs and river bottom fauna in a large number.
Essay # 6. Loss of Moisture Loving Plants:
The moisture loving plants, fruit bushes and long stalked flowering plants have been disappeared from the river banks and mountain slopes. The Kainth and Khaina (ficus auriculata) bushes and trees have been vanished away in the last three decades.
Essay # 7. Katra Siyaraa:
The red brown wolf, black bear, mountain tigers and small (mammals have disappeared from the local areas. Among the magpies (Karaoon and Saraoon), water fowl, wild fowl, white paradise, black magpie – Dhainchoos are rarely found in this valley. But now very few birds remain there in the wild.
The magpie birds are red brown Karaoon and white blue saraoon (the long-tailed birds). The large ancient trees in the valleys have been completely vanished away. As a result, there are no epiphyte orchids on the trees now. Once the valley was thriving with the black magpie (Kaljeenth – Dhainchoo) of Katraa Siyaaraa Valley.
Essay # 8. The Valleys of Wild Birds:
The black bird with bifurcated tail lives near the river valleys in the mountains of Shivalik. After many years, two nests were located in the month of June 2008 in the Katara Siyaaraa valley. Although the bird was seen in the valley every year, every nest was seen with two or three eggs and the presence of two baby birds after the hatching of eggs. This was a good starting of Dhainchoo after many years. In the month of June 2009, the bird Dhainchoo (black bird) was seen in the village of Chidderwala with its nest in a mango tree in the garden near a sugarcane field.
Two baby birds were seen in the nest. This was an interesting finding that the bird was seen with nest in the semitropical Terai region of Dehradun district. Primarily the bird is located in the Shivalik hills and valleys in Kumaun and Garhwal (Uttaranchal). Loss of ancient habitats, disappearance of caves, rocks and natural areas have reduced the population of wild song birds in the Shivalik hills. Dhainchoo is basically an inhabitant of Shivalik hills of Uttaranchal.
Goginee Valley is an important valley for the prey birds like eagles and vultures and is also visible on the high rocks. The high rocks of Goginee valley are the ancient habitats of eagles and vultures. Only a few prey birds live there now.
The Black Bird (Dhainchoo), skylark, magpies, white paradise, blue bird, (Neelkanth), mouse bird (mush chiriya), bulbul (Chuphlya Galadar), suradi, tailorbirds and honey birds are found in this beautiful narrow valley. In the past three decades, 90% species of wild birds have been vanished away.
Only a few song birds are visible now as there are some good heathlands to protect them. Very few long trees and traditional habitats are visible now. The old habitat loss, global warming and increasing pollution are a great threat to them.
Global warming has reduced the cold climate herbs. The invading herbs and plants have taken their place in the valleys. This has created a lot of imbalance in the presence of fauna and flora of Shivalik Hills. The river water of this valley has been reduced to one inch while three decades back the presence of water in the river was up to six inches. The gushing water of this valley now has turned into sweet memories of the past among the writers and journalists who come to visit here during holidays.
There are several reasons of extinction of bio-diversity. The natural and manmade reasons are more. The global warming is the biggest enemy of bio-diversity loss over this earth. We, the aware citizens of the world should do our best to protect the whole bio-diversity of this living planet.