Natural form of water deteriorates due to many natural and human sources. Some pollutants enter into water from such sources and they badly affect other creatures and vegetation along with man. The extent of evil effect of that pollutant depends on the nature of the special polluting substance. Some pollutants leave their effect immediately whereas others act slowly.
These pollutants are as follows:
Mercury enters in water mainly from industrial and agricultural effluents. Some quantity mixes in water from natural elements also. Mercury is a proplasmic poisonous element of nature. After collecting in the body of human, it harms their liver, kidney, spleen and bones. Acidic mercury is more poisonous in the bodies. Harmful effect is caused to gums and face due to it.
The quantity of lead in water increases from industrial waste. Being a poisonous substance, it affects public health through different ailments.
As a result of industrial processes, compounds of zinc, mainly zinc oxide and zinc chloride mixed in water, cause harmful effects. More concentration of zinc chloride in water spoils the lungs.
Quantity of fluoride should not exceed 1 PPM in water. Use of fluoride-affected water with its excessive quantity cause diseases of teeth, deformation of bodily limbs, curved bones, loss of blood, loss in weight etc. In India, maximum quantity of fluoride is found in groundwater of western Rajasthan. Many bodily deformations are visible due to it.
Sodium is found in the form of a compound due to its activeness. Hence, its effect is possible only due to positive ions.
It is the most poisonous carbonic material which causes maximum effect on skin. It also affects organs of human body, specially kidney, liver, spleen and lungs. Touch of phenol for 15 to 20 minutes on skin, immediately shows effect on muscles, power of hearing and sight etc.
By use of water having more nitride, babies suffer from ‘Blue Baby’ disease which causes vomiting and the colour of the skin becomes dark. Hence, it is a very dangerous compound.
8. Armenizum or Pathogenic Bacteria:
After entering water, they cause fatal effect on human body. They spread diseases like plague, measles, pneumonia and influenza, which sometimes take a shape of plague. Thus, the above pollutants cause harmful effects on man after mixing with water from different sources but their removal is also in the hands of man.