Stresses on Different Civic Amenities to Improve Standard of Living are 1. Stress on water supply 2. Stress on electricity supply 3. Stress on transport services 4. Health services !
Along with population explosion, the present society has undertaken a number of activities like industrialization, urbanisation etc., to improve the living standards of its people, i.e., there is a significant change in the life style of every individual.
Now everybody wants to lead a healthy and civilized life, without caring for its environment. Such an attitude of individuals exerts tremendous stress on civic amenities like water supply, power supply, transport services and health services day by day.
Let us discuss the stresses on different civic amenities as follows:
1. Stress on Water Supply:
Water is used by the civilized human beings for drinking, cooking, sanitation, watering of plants and animals etc. As per the available data a person requires minimum of 20 to 40 litres of water per day for drinking and other uses.
As the world population has crossed six billion -mark, it puts high pressure on fresh water resource which is about 3% of total water. As fresh water available on the surface of the earth is not sufficient to meet the growing need of the increased population, the ground water is being explored.
Now a days, the human brings are using about 25% of ground water and 75% of surface water. If stress is applied on ground water sources, it’s too much exploration will lead to lowering of water table (which has already started) salinisation, water-logging and alkanisation of soil.
Water stress may be defined as a situation when the annual per capita availability of renewable fresh water falls below 1700 m3 .Similarly water scarcity may be defined as a situation when water availability is below 1000 m3.
The present statistics indicates that India is marching towards water scarcity condition:
(i) The available water should be used more efficiently and its misuse should be prevented.
(ii) The waste water should be properly treated and recycled for agricultural use.
(iii) There should be effective rain water harvesting in urban or rural areas.
(iv) Small reservoirs should be constructed for storing of surface water.
(v) There should be a national water policy to ensure sustainable availability and use of water for diverse objectives.
2. Stress on Electricity Supply:
The global energy consumption is going on increasing due to population explosion, rapid industrialisation, urbanization, technological growth and modem life style in the society. Out of all the energy sources, electricity plays a major role in our day-to-day life and has become inseparable from a modem man.
This is due to the fact that electricity is used in industries, laboratory equipment’s, trains, trams, lightening of streets and houses, operation of house hold electrical utensils etc. Thus for the development of socio-economic conditions of a country or region or society, electricity is considered as a yard stick.
Electricity is produced from water, coal, nuclear materials, wind etc. With increase in population, the above natural resources are depleting which put a lot of stress on electricity production and hence on electricity supply.
In order to release stress on electricity supply to some extent, the following points should be considered:
(i) The available natural resources for the production of electricity should be judiciously used i.e., there should not be any misuse of natural resources.
(ii) Care should be taken for the optimum use of electricity.
(iii) Research should be done for alternate sources of energy from which electricity can be produced.
(iv) There should be proper legislation to check misuse of electricity by individuals and different organisations.
3. Stress on Transport Services:
The present civilized society depends upon an extensive and good transport system for its development which have been provided by modern technology and scientific development. This has made the earth smaller and smaller day by day. The share of transport sector in total GDP was over 18% in 1992/93 (409.5 billion rupees at 1980/81 prices).
The energy consumption in the transport has increased at the rate 3.1% per year during seventies and 4.75% per year during eighties and nineties which is mainly due to greater use of private mode of transport. A rapid rise in total transportation-sector energy consumption is due to the increasing number autos, private vehicles and auto’s changing role. In India transportation activity and energy use do not appear to be saturated yet.
Therefore, an increase in fuel demand may be expected in India unless measures are taken to alter transport sector trends or stimulate improvements in fuel economy. Because of the congestion and pollution that accompanies automobile use there is considerable interest in India concerning the role of automobiles in the transportation system in future.
Although there is a significant increase in number of vehicles, the existing global transport infrastructure is insufficient to meet the actual acquirement of the increased population, especially in the poor and developing countries.
The same can be well marked in the country sides where most of the people travel on the roof of the vehicles. Thus, the growing human population associated with large number of vehicles on the road has been causing not only traffic congestion but also environmental pollution.
The narrowness and bad condition of the roads with comparatively larger number of vehicles and people cause higher fuel consumption, higher vehicular emission causing air pollution and traffic jam in urban or semiuban areas. Thus, population explosion, lesser number of standard vehicles, bad road condition, higher fuel consumption etc. exert stress on transport system.
In order to release the stress on transport system, the following points may be considered:
(i) More and more flyovers, over bridges, bye lanes, steamer and ferry lunch etc. should be used to avoid traffic congestion.
(ii) Mode and more Diesel Multiple Unit trains (DMU) should be introduced in urban areas in order to avoid people’s dependency on the individual and public road transport systems.
(iii) Metrotrains should be introduced in metropolitan cities.
(iv) Government should take necessary steps for the broadening and repairing of roads.
(v) The vehicles should be checked periodically whether these are releasing polluting gases or not.
4. Health Services:
The population growth industrialization, urbanization and environmental degradation have direct or indirect influence on human health and health services i.e., these processes cause different types of health hazards. The health hazards may be due to pathogens, chemical pollutants or physical environment and may take place at home, work place or anywhere.
Although urbanization and industrialization bring prosperity, at the same time these invite the diseases related to polluted drinking water, polluted air, accumulation of wastes etc. The polluted water causes diseases like diarrhea, typhoid, dysentery etc. Polluted air leads to respiratory diseases like asthma.
The chemical pollutants are known to contribute to ill health and premature death. The pesticides and insecticides affect farm workers and other citizens of both rural and urban areas. In addition, allergens, mutagens and carcinogens cause severe health hazards in society.
The other serious problems inducing health hazards are global warming, smog formation, acid rain and depletion of ozone layer. The above phenomena induce allergy, vector bone diseases and communicable diseases.
In order to check the health hazards discussed above, the following points should be considered:
(i) Steps should be taken to provide non-contaminated water for personal and domestic hygiene which will reduce a number of health hazards due to water pollution.
(ii) The technological advances in water supply, sanitation, drainage and solid waste management can be adopted to local circumstances which will improve health and environmental conditions.
(iii) Steps should be taken to prevent the contamination of food and water.
(iv) Steps should be taken for the eradication of malaria, hepatitis and other infectious diseases in both rural and urban areas.
(v) Adequate health care should be provided in rural and remote areas.
(vi) Basic environmental needs like clean air, clean water and adequate nutrition should be provided to both urban and rural people.
(vii) Steps should be taken to minimise the amount of air pollutants in atmosphere, i.e., the polluted air should be released to the atmosphere after suitable treatment.
(viii) The use of harmful pesticides and herbicides should be minimized.
(ix) The chemical fertilizers and pesticides should be replaced by bio-fertilizer and bio-pesticides which will reduce the amount of water pollutants.
(x) Steps should be taken for the eradication of poverty (poverty is closely related to health) and sustainable environmental management which will provide better health to all.
Thus, better health states of society will bring about better way of life.