Here is an essay on ‘Bio-Diversity of the Rain Forests’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Bio-Diversity of the Rain Forests’ especially written for school and college students.
Bio-Diversity of the Rain Forests
- Essay on Rain Forests of Java, Sumatra and Borneo
- Essay on the Bio-Diversity of Rain Forests of Brazil
- Essay on the Rhinos of Congo Rain Forests
- Essay on Kibale National Park, Uganda
- Essay on the Amazing Primates
- Essay on Malaysian Rain Forests
- Essay on the most Ancient Rainforests of New Guinea
- Essay on Canada’s Great Bear Rain Forests
- Essay on the Mekong Bio-Diversity Revealed
- Essay on Bio-Divesity of Siau Island
- Essay on Green Frogs in the Cambodia’s Cardmom Mountains
- Essay on the Bio-Diversity of Galapagos Islands
- Essay on Orchids and Ferns of the Rain Forests
- Essay on the Amazing Bio-Diversity
- Essay on the Reasons of Loss of Forests, Loss of Habitats
Essay # 1. The Rain Forests of Java, Sumatra and Borneo:
The rain forests of these countries are moisturous, dense and full of amazing bio-diversity.
The orangutans of Sumatra are the most endangered primate species now. It is estimated that as many as 2000 orangutans exist in the nature reserves of Sumatra. Another 2000 live in the forests outside of the reserves. Their chances of survival are small because of the rate at which the forests are being cut down. The same story is awaiting the fate of other harmless and beautiful animals in the nature.
The Species Lost Forever:
The rainforests contain a greater number of plants and animal species than other habitats on earth. Many species of animals are still unknown to scientists. It is estimated that by the year 2015 a large number of forests will vanish away from the earth. So, is the fate of bio-diversity existing in those forests.
The worst thing is that the rain forests are vanishing away at an alarming speed. Every year thousands of hectares of rain forests are being cleared for agriculture, human settlement, burning and slashing, and permanently damaged by the vehicles and staff of logging crew. Around 15000, square kilometers of rain forest are damaged alone by wild fire and the logging crew.
The Great Apes:
The worst sufferers are the Great Apes as their population is on the verge of extinction. It is estimated that some of the Great Apes could be extinct in the wild within a human generation. It means within 50-60 years, the Great Apes may be vanished away from the earth. This theory has been explained through many sources. The future of the remaining Great Apes: the Gorillas, Chimpanzees and Bonobos of Africa and the Orangutans of South East Asia (Sumatra, Java, Borneo) is in danger. The Great Apes are the monkeys without tails.
The Sumatran Orangutans are critically endangered great Apes which number 7,300 in the rain forests. They are mainly found in Aceh province at the northern tip of Sumatra. The state saw an armed conflict for decades between the Indonesian government and separatist rebels which suffered heavily during December 2004’s Tsunami.
The Mountain Gorillas:
The mountain Gorillas of Democratic Republic of Congo and the Cross River Gorillas, found on the border between Nigeria and Cameroun are also categorized as critically endangered, with numbers, estimated 700 and 250, respectively. The habitats and food resources of the Gorillas are vanishing away with the felling of trees.
For gorillas and Chimpanzees, Ebola fever is as a significant threat. This fever is quite fatal and takes the lives of several apes every year.
Essay # 2. Bio-Diversity of Rain Forests of Brazil:
There are world’s one fifth bird species in the Great Amazonian wilderness of Brazil. Some of birds are most amazing and beautiful. Some are large and some are small in shape and size.
The Caiman Crocodiles:
The Caiman crocodile is found in Brazil wetlands. It can be seen in Amazon Wetlands and Pantanal wetlands (2,10,000 square kilometers). The largest rodent of the world is also found in Pantanal.
Protected Areas of Brazil:
Brazil Ministry of Environment announced the creation of two protected areas in October, 2005. These are in the states of Santa Catarina. The 12,481 hectare, Araucarias National Park and 6,563 hectare Mata Preta Ecological Station are both of great importance in protecting remnant forests of the Prana or Brazilian pine (Araucaria angustifolia). The Araucaria pine forest of Southern and south eastern Brazil, a distinctive formation of the Brazilian Atlantic forest, once covered more than 20 million hectares but, devastated by the timber industry reduced to remnants covering a mere 2% of that area. The Brazilian pine has been on the Brazilian threatened list since 1992.
Birdlife (UK) has received 2 million US$ to protect the Atlantic forests of Brazil. Now, the amount for the conservation of Amazonia has a target of 21 billion US$. The Birdlife is doing its best to protect bird fauna and wild animals all over the world. Deforestation of Amazonia is increasing every year. This has caused great concern among the environmentalists and rainforest lovers all over the world.
The Continuous Deforestation:
Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon had reached by 27 percent in 1998 with 16,800 square kilometers were cleared. Since 1972,532068 square kilometers, 13.3 percent of the entire Amazon region has been lost. These figures could be underestimated because satellite monitoring cameras identifies only deforested areas over 6 hectares. It also misses 10,000-15000 square kilometers a year that are severely damaged by logging crew and fire damage to standing forests.
The Amazon National Park:
The Brazilian President in 2006 had passed a resolution to expand the world famous Amazon National Park further by 1,50,000 hectares and had created seven new protected areas in Para state. The main reason to create these parks within Amazonia was to make them living laboratories of the fauna and flora found there and protects them for a longer time in the history of the biodiversity conservation campaign of Amazonia.
Furthermore, one of the decrees establishes, Brazil’s first Sustainable Forest District, which aims to further sustainable development in the country.
In total the decrees will increase the size of western Para’s protected areas to 6.4 million hectare, while the Amazon region as a whole will include 45.8 million hectares of protected area, an increase of one third compared to 2003. The seven new protected areas are in the way of planning to protect the amazing bio-diversity of Amazon. Unfortunately, logging is continuing in some areas of the Amazon forests which has created more problems for the survival of bio-diversity there.
The global warming is creating trouble to the existing amphibians in the Amazonia and other tropical forests of the world. The life of the marine animals has been affected in the oceans. The chytrids fungus (Batracho chytrium dendrobetidis) has been implicated in amphibian extinctions in the American tropics and at some places the population of amphibians has declined systematically.
America provides evidence that higher night time temperatures are creating optimum conditions for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis growth with 78-83% of extinction occurring during usually spin off from global warming will also benefit the fungus as cloud cover promotes moist conditions and shield the fungus in amphibians of the tropical areas.
Essay # 3. The Rhinos of Congo Rain Forests:
There are some amazing species of Rhinos in the forests of Congo. At present, Africa’s total Rhino population is 14720 of which 3630 are black Rhinos, which have seen an increase of 500 (15%) in 2002 and 2003.
There are currently 11,090 white Rhinos. There are 20 northern white Rhinos, and special species from the northern forests. The race of northern white Rhino is reduced to tiny population in Garamba National park on the border of Democratic Republic of Congo and Sudan. The increase in the number of black Rhino is encouraging after a decline from 65,000 in the 1970,s to only 2400 in the mid of 1990s.
However, there are still reckoned to be 90% fewer black Rhinos than there were 30 years ago.
Essay # 4. Kibale National Park, Uganda:
The selective logging has caused a great disturbance to the bio-diversity of Kibale National Park in Uganda. This has affected the primates in the Park with gastrointestinal parasites. The bacteria in Redtail monkeys (Carcopithecus ascarius) has affected 92% population of monkeys in the logged forest and 29% in undisturbed forests. This compels monkeys to eat more and more infected invertebrates in the forests. This causes gastro-intestinal disease in monkeys.
Essay # 5. The Amazing Primates:
In contrary, Red colobus monkeys (Pilio Colobus tephrosceles) and black and white colobus (colobus guereza) from logged and undisturbed forests showed no significant difference in parasite loads, possibly because logging does not affect the diet of these species.
Essay # 6. Malaysian Rain Forests:
The cloud tigers, pangolin, anteater and other wild animals are found in Malaysian rain forests. The primates are of several species with different nature and habits. The bird fauna is quite amazing and diverse. The strange species of mammals is found in the forests of Malaysia.
The Milky Storks:
Habitat loss, human disturbance and poaching have caused a big threat to the wild birds and water birds. The Malaysian Nature Society has announced that only 10 birds remain in Malaysia, making extinction within five years a distinct possibility. The estimated global population of the Milky stork is 5550 individuals, with about 5000 in Sumatra.
However the stork’s habitat in Indonesia is also under threat, from agricultural expansion and development schemes. For the conservation of Milky storks and their captive breeding, the mangrove development and expansion plan remain continue. Global warming and habitat loss have affected the population of milky storks.
Essay # 7. Most Ancient Rainforests of New Guinea:
Papua New Guinea is a haven for fauna and flora in the world. This island nation is known for its rich bio-diversity. The large red civets, big mammals, insects, birds and amazing flowering plants are exported from this island to other parts of the world. The export of birds, animals and plants has made them economically strong. Here, we can see the bio-diversity as business.
A team of scientists visited the island nation in the year 2006 and found it amazingly rich in bio-diversity. The rain forests here are now one third of the entire forest area. The Conservation International found here the most isolated jungles in Asia. The Foya Mountains in Western New Guinea has found dozens of new species including a honey eater, 20 frog species and four species of butterfly.
The expedition also obtained the first photographs of the spectacular Berlapsch six wired Bird of Paradise, thereby confirming the location of the range of this remarkable species. The interior of the Foya Mountains Range, which consists of more than 300,000 hectare of old tropical forest growth, form a part of Bird Life North Papua Mountain Endemic Bird Area (EBA).
The Endangered Amphibian Animals:
The amphibian animals in the rain forests and tropics are vanishing away because of global warming, habitat loss and fungal diseases in the forests and the wetlands. In a first global survey conducted in 2004, it has given a bleak picture of amphibian animals in rain forests and tropical areas.
The amphibians are under great threat than birds or mammals according to the results of the first worldwide survey. Almost a third of the 5,743 known species of amphibians are threatened and 427 species (7%) are classed as “Critically Endangered.”
Environmental Change: Main Threat:
The resources for the decline are largely unknown and in almost 30% of species there are not enough data to discover population trends. Amphibians tend to have smaller ranges and are less tolerant of environmental change than birds or mammals, making the more vulnerable to habitat loss and overhunting.
It is thought that the fungal disease chytidiomycosis may be responsible for severe declines but the fungus was present well over 10 years before decline began. The fungus itself can be controlled in captive frogs but not apparently in wild populations.
Essay # 8. Canada’s Great Bear Rain Forests:
Canada’s 20,000 hectares of rain forests known as the habitats to Great Bears is being protected by country’s NGOs, environmental organizations, industry leaders and the indigenous groups. The people are celebrating after their campaign to protect the Great Bear Rainforest has finally brought fruit, 10 years after its conception.
The Canadian Government has agreed to legislation that will protect one third of the forest from logging and ensure that the remaining two thirds are logged using sustainable practices. The total area of the forest is 20,00,000 hectare which is more than twice the Yellowstone National Park.
Essay # 9. The Mekong Bio-Diversity Revealed:
The Mekong Delta is among the first largest wetlands in the world. The Lower Mekong Basin compares parts of Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam, and covers 6,20,000 km2 of mainland in South East Asia. Myanmar’s small share of the Lower Mekong Basin is 3% of the entire Mekong Basin. The Lower Mekong Basin is the home of 60 million people. About 80% of the population are predominantly rural and rely heavily on natural resources for their livelihoods.
The Greater Mekong Region:
The extraordinary diversity of the Greater Mekong Region of South East Asia, where over 100 new species have been found in the last one decade is equating to two new species every week. Many of the species are spectacular to look at 400, such as bright pink dragon, millipede, and the world’s largest huntsman spider, with a large span of C-30 cm. Most of the species were discovered in the rain forests and wetlands of the Mekong. The spot highlights the importance of ensuring that development of local livelihoods and the conservation of rich bio-diversity.
Essay # 10. Bio-Divesity of Siau Island:
A new species of tarsier, recognised as one of the world’s 25 most endangered primates, has been described from the tiny island of Siau, North Sulawesi part of the Sangihe Island chains a volcanic arc stretching north from Sulawesi towards the Philippine island of Mandanoa.
The species is called Tarsius tumpara with tumpara being the name for the tarsier used by the inhabitants of the island. Siau is about one fifth of the size of Singapore and has a human population density of 311 people km square. More than half the island is an active volcano and the remaining habitat for this species is minimal. It is overhunted. Local inhabitants eat the tarsiers as sauce food they call tola tola and the species has been extirpated over much of the island as a result.
New Snub-Nosed Monkey Found:
A new species of Tonkin’s snub-nosed monkey has been found in the Chinese border forests of Vietnam. The new population of Tonkin’s snub-nosed monkey is critically endangered in Vietnam. The interviews were conducted in villages and it was found that the Tung Via commune had observed the monkeys after seeing film footage of the species supplied by FFI to a National Mission Network. Following the interviews the FFI led team of researchers located a group of 15-20 individuals of the species including three, juveniles, in a small forest patch in Queen Ba District.
Loss of Habitats (The Snub-Nosed Monkeys are on the Verge of Extinction):
The monkeys seemed wary of people. The main reason for their decline is hunting for the bushmeat trade. The habitat destruction and pollution are major threats to the survival these species.
There is a great need to reduce the human pressure on the ecosystems of the Vietnam forests.
Essay # 11. Green Frogs in the Cambodia’s Cardmom Mountains:
FFI has conducted surveys in Cardmom Mountains and unearthed a species of frog previously unknown to science. Description of the new amphibians, samkos bush frog make it an interesting study. It has a green blood and tungusrise bones that are visible through its translucent skin. The reason for this coloration is that the frog does not process the waste product bile in its liver but instead of this green pigment is passed back into the frog’s blood.
Since 2000, the FFI is working in Cambodia which has resulted in the discovery of more than 40 species including 4 frogs, not previously seen in the country. In 2008, FFI published the first field guide to Cambodia’s amphibians which is available in Khmer and English languages from the office of Fauna and Flora International.
Cambodia’s national list of amphibians now stands at 63 species.
Essay # 12. Bio-Diversity of Galapagos Islands:
The islands are a haven for tourists from all over the world. These islands were favourite destination of the scientist Sir Charles Darwin who proposed the theory of evolution. The Charles Darwin Research Centre is working here since 1836. The Galapagos Islands are famous for their living bio-diversity. The elephantos tortoise (the Giant tortoise: Geochelone elephantopus) is found here. Now this tortoise is on the verge of extinction.
This tortoise is quite different from the tortoises of other islands. Earlier, Geochelone elephantopus was endemic to the island of Florence but became extinct following intense human exploitation. Investigations into the genetic data of extant giant tortoises from another island in the archipelago; Isabela, showed that some living tortoises on this island are genetically extinct from the rest of the tortorises on the island.
The DNA Tests:
Interestingly, the non-native tortoises from Isabela Island are of recent Florence Island ancestry and were found to have DNA that closely matches that of the extinct Geochelone elephantopus, indicating that the genetic lineage of this extinct species persists in descendants occupying a different island.
These islands are also known for water birds, lizards, crabs, snakes and other small birds in the rainforests. The small mammals are also found in the islands. These islands are under the administration of Ecuadorean Government. The bio-diversity of Ecuador is quite amazing and impressive.
13. Orchids and Ferns of the Rain Forests:
The tropical forests are a haven for floral diversity. There are so beautiful flowering bushes, amazing trees and plants rich in variety and beauty. Because of evergreen plant, it becomes a scenic spot for the explorers. The ferns and orchids of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay are not only amazing botanical plants but a great creation of nature for human being. These plants are of a great value and recreation.
Colombia, Venezuela, Peru and Brazil are a haven for most of beautiful orchids and Ferns of the world.
The City of Orchids:
Moyobamba is a city of orchids in Peru. The population of this city is 50,000 and the orchids found here are 2500 species. That’s why this city is called the City of Orchids.
The Orchid Flora:
There are most beautiful species of orchids found in the forests of Thailand, Singapore, Borneo Java, Sumatra, Philippines, New Zealand and Australia. There are best export items. Particularly, Thailand and New Guinea are rich in orchids and fern plants. Thailand is the best exporter of orchids today. USA is also a best orchid exporter and buyer country.
Butterflies of Rainforests:
There are several amazing species of butterflies the rain forests. Several species of them attract the tourists from far and wide places. The butterflies attract the people with their beautiful colours and varieties. In a single species there are several colours and spots.
The wetlands, wetclay, flowering bushes and trees are the best places for butterflies to visit and inhabit them. The butterflies of British Columbia, Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil, West Africa, South Africa, Madagascar and South East Asian forests have most beautiful species of butterflies.
Insects of Rainforests:
The orthopoda is the largest world of insect group in the world. There are numerous species of insects, butterflies, moths, caterpillar, mantis and other species found in large numbers in the rain forests. The rain forests have sufficient moisture which is enough for their breeding and growing population in the wild. The rain forests of South America, Africa, South East Asia, have most beautiful and amazing species of insects. Some insect species have good habitats in rain forests of the world.
Macaw of Rainforests:
The rain forests of Brazil, Venezuela Columbia, Ghana, Gabon, Congo, Cameroun, Borneo, Sumatra, Papua New Guinea have the species of most beautiful and large parrots in the world. Some countries like Papua New Guinea are exporting some plants, trees and parrots to Western Countries. The export of wild animals and plants is the main economic backbone of Papua New Guinea.
Essay # 14. The Amazing Bio-Diversity:
The rain forest growth in Pupua New Guinea is amazing and unique in the world as these two island nations are surrounded by tropical sea. The bio-diversity of Papua New Guinea is rich and varied. The amazing wild animals are found here. The country is quite popular for its ornamental flowering plants in the world. These tropical plants are in great demand for interior decorations in rich nations.
Reptiles of Rainforests:
The world of reptiles is amazing, varied and impressive in the rain forests. The lizards, iguana, chameleon, giant lizard, monitor lizard, gecko lizard, boa tree snakes, king cobras, python, Antiguan Racer, green snakes, Anaconda snakes and some water snakes are found in the rain forests. The turtles are common sights in the rainforests. The common fresh water turtles, lake and pond turtles and wetland turtles are quite impressive sights in the forests.
Bird Fauna of Rain Forests:
The birds are most beautiful and amazing creatures in the world. A large number of them are found in the densely populated forests of tropical countries. One fifth of the bird fauna of the world is found in Amazon forests. Colombia and Venezuela have maximum species of humming birds. Africa and South East Asian have beautiful parrots, kingfishers, hornbills and birds of paradise in the world.
Mammals of Rainforests:
The mammals in the rain forests are more violent and amazing.
The mammals are in several categories:
(1) The Carnivores
(2) Hoofed mammals
(4) Sea mammals
There are several species of violent mammals including lions, tigers, jaguars, clouded tigers and bears found in the rain forests.
Essay # 15. Reasons of Loss of Forests, Loss of Habitats:
It is a fact that the loss of forests is the loss of habitats of the wild animals. The primates, gorillas, chimpanzees, gibbons and pigmy chimpanzees, bonobos, orangutans are endangered species because of the reduction of forest areas at a larger scale. Almost one third of the forests of the world are gone in the last four decades.
1. Timber Companies – The Main Hurdles:
The timber companies are badly damaging the main forests at a larger scale. One third forests of the rain forests have been cleared in the past three decades. Besides agriculture expansion, urbanization and developmental projects have destroyed the rain forests at a greater scale.
2. Human Pressure, Agriculture and Construction:
Human pressure, agricultural expansion and construction of dams have destroyed several forests and natural areas. The growing population and massive urbanisation have destroyed natural forests.
3. Increasing Pollution:
Increasing pollution, garbage and chemicals are polluting the environment with a greater speed. Polythenes, juice cans, several boxes and plastic bottles have been dumped in the forests and natural areas. This has created a big problem for the growth of plants, trees and medicinal herbs. For rain forests, it is more destructive as it lowers the level of moisture in the forests. The wild animals and plants both are affected by this pollution.
4. Global Warming:
Global warming is the main enemy of new forest growth, moisturous environment and local biodiversity. The changing weather patterns have destroyed the balance of the ecology of rainforests. The mammals, avifauna, reptiles, orthopoda and several amazing animals found in the rainforests of the world are on the verge of extinction. One third of the rainforests of Brazil have been completely wiped out by the timber companies, agricultural expansion projects, farm houses and ranches recently established there.
This has badly damaged the ecological system of the Amazon forests. It is said that for the reforestation of Amazon, there is a need of 21 billion US $. Several NGOs and voluntary organizations of the world have raised their voice in support of the fresh conservation activities for the protection of Amazon forests.