Here is an essay on ‘Bio-Diversity’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Bio-Diversity’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Bio-Diversity
- Introduction to Biodiversity
- Bio-Diversity of Uttarakhand (Katraa Siyaaraa)
- Bio-Diversity of National Parks
- Bio-Diversity of Wildlife in India
- Bio-Diversity of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra
- Bio-Diversity of Bhutan, Manas River and Sunderbans
- Bio-Diversity of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu
- Bio-Diversity of the Mangroves of Western and Eastern Ghats
Essay # 1. Introduction to Biodiversity:
India is famous for its biological diversity in the world. It has five distinct bio-diversity zones which are known for their rich fauna and flora. In every zone the plants and animals have their distinct nature, ecological importance and a different way of inhabitation.
The bio-diversity of India is distributed in five zones seeing its varied ecological characteristics and geographical importance. It is certain that the plants and animals found in these regions might have taken millions of years to adopt themselves according to the ecological system in those places.
i. The Himalayan Zone:
The Himalayan region covers an area of about 3.4 million kilometers square (1.3 million square miles). It is divided into three separated longitudinal zones – Outer Himalaya: The line of foothills averaging to 1000-2000 meters. The Great Himalayas: This is the main range of lofty mountains spread up to 6,000 meters. North of the Great Himalaya (the Zaskar Range) is quite distinct from it.
ii. Eastern Zone:
The Eastern zone consists of West Bengal, Sikkim, and North-Eastern states. In West Bengal, Sundarban, Assam (Brahmaputra river delta), Kaziranga National Park, Arunachal, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura are among the beautiful places known for their rich and varied bio-diversity.
iii. Western Zone:
The western zones consists Rajasthan, Gujarat, (Gir forests and mangroves), some parts of Maharashtra are included in it. The tigers, lions, sambhars and deer are included in it. The desert animals in Rajasthan are habitual to live in desert ecology. The plants and animals both are adapted to arid environment.
iv. Central Zone:
This part is known as Madhya Bharat or Madhya Pradesh which is known for its most beautiful animals both mammals and birds. The forests are densely populated and various species of animals, trees and plants are found in the forests and near the river banks. This includes Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and some parts of Orissa.
v. Southern Zone:
It includes Kerala, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. The Southern Zone constitutes a large part of mangroves and forests with distinguished bio-diversity – plants, animals and insects are the main features of these forests. The mangroves are continuously being destroyed by the farmers for farmlands, settlers for housing and mining and drilling activities by the private business houses. This has caused much more damage to the mangroves and forests of Southern Zone which is a hot-spot of bio-diversity. The trees, plants, mammals, reptiles, birds and insects are found in large numbers.
The Sandalwood Forests:
The sandalwood forests of South India are the most fragile now. The wood is being exploited to extract sandal wood oil and scents. The sandalwood forests from the south have been wiped out by the sandal wood smugglers. It is estimated that every year Rs. 400 crore sandal wood is being smuggled from the southern states.
These forests are endemic and now only one third of the forests have remained standing in these states. The continuous felling of sandalwood has eroded the ecosystem of the forests. The mammals, reptiles and birds in those states have become rare and most of them have been migrated to bordering forests.
Essay # 2. Bio-Diversity of Uttarakhand (Katraa Siyaaraa):
Several species of trees and evergreen bushes which are endemic to this region are disappearing at an alarming rate. For example, Timul, Bedoo, Khaina (Ficus auricutata) and the small bushes and large trees are gradually disappearing.
The Ringalee Ghass (the bamboo grass) the smallest Bamboo in the world has been disappeared from the large portion of this valley. The decreasing of moisture and increasing global warming have caused the disappearance of some plants and animals. The invading plants and trees are spreading in the forests.
Bio-Diversity of the Himalayan Region:
The immense mountain barrier of the Himalaya extends in a huge arc for more than 2500 Km (1500 miles) from Nanga Parvat (8,124 mts.) in Kashmir through Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan and the North Eastern Frontier Agency to Namcha Barrua (7,782 mts.) in extreme western China.
The Himalayan region covers an area of about 3.4 million kilometers square (1.3 million square miles).
The Himalaya is a huge mountain barrier and has a marked effect on the weather conditions by obstructing northward movements of the monsoon. It brings extremely heavy rainfall to the foothills but very little to the Tibetan Plateau above, leaving it in a rain shadow.
The variations can be compared Ladakh (Little Tibet), where an annual rainfall does not exceed 75 mm (3 inch), with the Eastern Himalayas which receivers the full force of the monsoon, and where normal rainfall is in excess of 2,000 mm (80 inch), though 5,000 mm (200 inch) is not unusual rainfall. Some places get considerably more rainfall in the world. On the other hands, the Himalayas protect the plains of India from the bitter cold that is a marked feature of the Tibetan Plateaus.
The Study of bird fauna in the Himalayan region is of particular interest. The large birds, the pheasants of which there are 49 species, some of them with numerous sub species.
In 16 genera are especially well represented in the Himalaya Tibet-Sichuan region. These birds include Impejanus pheasant, resplendent, copper blood pheasant, decked in green and grey with black and white markings and douped with crimson; satyr tragopan which is among the most beautiful pheasants, the monotype snow partridge; and red jungle fowl. This is the gamebird ancestor of the domestic fowl.
The Cheer Pheasant are among the rare birds which are found in lower Himalayan valleys and Arunachal forests. The Western Himalayan Tragopan is found in the higher altitude of Western Himalayan forests. The Blyth’s Tragopan is found in the Eastern Himalayas. The Himalayan Mountain Quail, a bird of Western Himalayan foothills, has not been recorded since 1868; it is believed that it still exists.
Essay # 3. Bio-Diversity of National Parks:
The best example of Himalayan Bio-diversity is Sagarmatha National Park in Nepal. This park is known for the high attitude fauna and flora. The Terai Forests of India are the best examples of wildlife and floral diversity. The semi-temperate forests are a rich source of timber, fuel and fodder for the tribal.
The mammals include elephants, tigers, bears, wild pigs, stag deer, marsh deer, fox, rabbits, shahi (porcupine), monkeys, langoors etc. These forests and national parks are rich in bird fauna. Nanda Devi National Park, The Great Kallu National Park of Himachal, Rajaji National Park (Uttaranchal) and Western Himalayan Wild bird Sanctuary, Sarahan in Himachal Pradesh are among the best examples of mountain flora and fauna.
Fauna and Flora of Sagar Matha:
The Sagarmatha National Park is in the northeastern Nepal with an area of 1148 square kilometers. The park covers the upper catchment of Dudh Kosi river system, a distinct geographical entity enclosed by high mountain ranges. The park’s northeastern boundary lies along the main divide of the Great Himalaya; coinciding with Tibetan border. The park’s four main glaciers – Chhukhung, Khumba, Gokyo and Nangpa La feed deeply incised valleys which drain into the Dudh Kosi River and its tributaries, to form the part of the Ganges River system.
Essay # 4. Bio-Diversity of Wildlife in India:
The park is a high-level breeding ground for wild birds. There are 162 recorded bird species in the park. Among them are blood pheasant, robin accentor, white throated red-start and grandala. Other important and beautiful birds are – Tibetan snowcock, snow partridge and Himalayan Monal (Lophorus impejanus) which are the inhabitants of high altitude mountains and colder climate.
Bio-Diversity of Wildlife in the North Eastern States:
The North Eastern States are amazingly beautiful and so is their wildlife. The lush green mountains, valleys, rivers, waterfalls and water springs – all of them attract us amazingly.
The North Eastern states of India are full of forests and greenery. Some of the forests are standing crops from the very ancient time. The trees and plants species in these states are endemic and most of them are moisturous forests.
These forests are rain forests and are known for their evergreen nature. The ferns and orchids are amazingly beautiful plants and have several species in the wild. The large cover of forests of ferns and orchids indicates that despite the global warming, the forest still generate moisture for the plants like fern and orchids which thrive in the wild. The orchids are epiphytes which grow on the trees but have their own food. They are not parasites at all. The terrestrial orchids grow on decomposed biomass in the moisturous land. The saprophytic orchids grow on rotten biomass, leaves, wood and branches.
The North Eastern Mountains and forests remain full of orchids, ferns and several species of lily. There are several varieties of plants and wild animals which are endemic to these forests and whose scientific studies still require a lot of survey and research work on their habitation, ancient origin (DNA study etc.) and ecological adaptation.
The deer, rabbits, porcupines, weasels, monkeys, tigers, bears and other mammals (small and large) are found in these forests. The lizards, snakes turtles, frogs, waterfowls, wild fowls, and species of monal are found here. The bird fauna is rich and beautifully described from the forests of North East.
The Assam forests, Meghalaya, Arunachal, Nagaland, Manipur Tripura and Mizoram are the finest examples of bio-diversity. Both rain forests and rangelands are covered with moisture loving plants. Some species of ferns, orchids and lilies are quite popular here.
Essay # 5. Bio-Diversity of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra:
The forests of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are densely populated and rich in bio-diversity. Particularly, it is known for its National Parks and rich bio-diversity both mammals and avifauna.
The parks are known for different species of mammals, reptiles, amphibians, avifauna, orthopoda, river fishes and other wild animals which attract millions of tourists every year. The National Parks are the best examples of the conservation of bio-diversity. Some Parks are more dense, deep, explorable and suitable for regular safari tourism. Among the large mammals are lion, tigers, bears, leopards, cheetah and dears. The wild boars, monkeys, langoors porcupines, rabbits, mongoose are found in the National Parks of Madhya Pradesh.
The Avifauna is most spectacular and attractive in the dense forests of Madhya Pradesh. The birds with several species from hornbill to Milky hen which always impresses our heart and mind are found in the forests of Madhya Pradesh.
Kingfisher, woodpecker, wildfowls, waterfowls, magpies, koel, nocturnal birds etc. are also visible in the National Parks.
Attraction for Wild Birds:
The wildlife in the forests of Madhya Pradesh is quite amazing. The wild animals are known for their carnivore and herbivore nature. Some of the mammals of Madhya Pradesh have unique features and characteristics in nature. Some species of tigers and lions are quite distinct in India.
The best thing in Madhya Pradesh forests is that of its rich bird fauna in the world. The varieties of its wild birds, peacocks, multicolored wildfowls, waterfowls and the special large sized birds are quite impressive. The white fowls, red and dark red colour birds, dark yellow colour birds, large- red headed woodpecker, brown hornbills, kingfisher and some species of the laughing birds are the source of great entertainment.
The bird watching in the camp-life activities are the best recreation in the wild. The birds of haven in extreme red colour and extreme white colour (the milky white) are quite popular among the bird watchers. Such special varieties of birds are not found in other parts of the world.
Forests have a large numbers of unique flora and fauna which should be protected by all means. Such tourist destinations should be protected and developed with modern amenities. This will encourage more tourists and more foreign visitors. There should be some well-equipped stay points near the national parks to relax and enjoy holidays.
Essay # 6. Bio-Diversity of Bhutan, Manas River and Sunderbans:
There are several bio-diversity hotspots over this earth. The best among them are 60 top forests and wildlife areas. At present some 30 new bio-diversity hotspots have been marked all over the world.
The Manas and Sankosh rivers in the borders of India and Bhutan are the habitats of wild birds and golden langoors. There are several beautiful species of plants and trees. The wild animals are known among the tourists visiting these spots. The Golden langoor (Presbitis McGeei) and other species of primates are found here.
The Golden langoor is a rare species and is found in only this region. The area of Golden langoor is spread up to borders of Assam. The rich bio-diversity between Manas and Sankosh rivers is known among the wildlife lovers of the world.
The mountain tiger, black bears, deer, foxes, rabbits, porcupines, weasels, mongoose etc. are found in the forests of Manas and Sankosh rivers in Bhutan and Sundarbans in West Bengal. The Sundarban delta is known for its Sundari tree which is an evergreen plant widely spread in the delta.
The wild boar is common in Sundarbans. The rabbits and wild fowls are also in good populations. The spotted deer (Axis axis) and wild boars (Sus coria) and tiger (Panther Tigris) are common sight in the bushes of Sunderban. The Sundarban is spread up to 10,000 kilometer square on Indian side and 26,000 sq. km between India and Bangladesh. The two third part of it is in Bangladesh.
In Assam, Kaziranga National Park and Manas National Park are among the most popular wildlife parks in our country. The park attracts millions of people every year. In 2007, the Kaziranga National Park suffered the worst. From 1997 to 2006 some six Rhinos were killed each year. But in 2007 the number of poaching rose to 10 in the park. Located in Assam, the park is known for its single horned rhinos. This species is found in only in Assam. Manas National Park has a large population of rhinos but they were wiped out during the civil unrest in the late 1990. This is a global bio-diversity hotspot and World Heritage Site also which is in good state now.
Essay # 7. Bio-Diversity of Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu:
The bio-diversity of the southern states of India i.e. Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu is quite different from that of Himalayan states of India. This is because of different ecological features and geological difference. In the Himalayas, the wildlife is adapted to colder climate.
In the warm climate of the southern states, an amazing range of fauna and flora is found in the forests. Kerala has some moisturous forests and evergreen vegetation which have a range of beautiful mammals, reptiles, primates, tigers, wild boars, bears and several other small mammals which are endemic to these forests.
The evergreen natural vegetation of Kerala attracts the tourists from the foreign lands. The forests have a large number of herbs with great medicinal values. Some of them are lifesaving medicines and are useful to human being. There are numerous plants, herbs and tree species which are of immense medicinal value to the people. The endangered lion tailed macaque (Macaca silenus) of Western Ghats (Kerala, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu) is found is these states.
The Western Ghats still harbour a high diversity of flora and fauna and is one of the bio-diversity hot spots. The diversity includes several species of Primates, notably, the endemic lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca selenus) and Nilgiri Langoor (Semnopithcus johnii). The range of occupancy of Lion tailed Macaque is 250 square kilometers.
This is a small area for a Macaque who requires a vast chunk of forests to roam here and there in search of food. The food includes mostly forest fruits and berries. In comparison, the above area is very small for the primates to move from one forest to another in search of food and inhabitation.
Essay # 8. Bio-Diversity of the Mangroves of Western and Eastern Ghats:
The Western Ghats is considered one of the richest biodiversity hot spots in the world. The evergreen trees, moisturous bushes and grasslands are a heaven for wild animals to move and breed freely in the open natural environment.
The Sirsi Honnavara in Karnataka is the main bastion of lion tailed Macaque. There are more than 750 individuals and they are confined to unprotected areas of reserve forests. The forests are near the human population, agricultural lands and livestock reserves. The experts have requested the government to make it a long term conservation area just to protect this unique primate species.
Sirsi Honnavara is an ideal place for their habitation and these should be protected with the support of local citizens and forest authorities.
The lion tailed monkey (Macaca silenus) and Nilgiri langoors (Semnopithecus johnii) are rare species and this require peoples support to protect the primates.
The Silent Valley National Park, Sirsi Honnavara Areas, Kudrmukh National Park, Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary are the main bastion of these primates.
The forests of Talekaveri and Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuaries are classified as medium forest type with Mesua ferea-Paloanium ellipticum vegetation. The population of lion-tailed monkey in the entire Western Ghats is estimated at 3,500 to 4000.
In Tamil Nadu Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary, Shendumey-kulathaparha Peppara-Neyger (Kerala state), Silent Valley National Park (Kerala), Kudremukh Someshara (Karnataka), Sirsi Honnavara (Karnataka) are the main attraction for wild life (mammals, reptiles, birds, butterflies, insects and river fauna).
The Shivalik Hills:
The small Shivalik Hills 4000′-7000′ are rich in bio-diversity. The birds, mammals, reptiles, insects and butterflies are found abundantly. There are some beautiful examples of fauna and flora of Pauri Hills in Uttaranchal.
Seeku Dhaar Red Fox:
The Shivalik Hills are the most beautiful manifestations of nature. The forests, bushes, rock caves, valleys and pasture slopes always impresses with their enchanting scenic beauty. Seeku Dhar is quite famous for its oak and deodar forests, small semi-temperate vegetation and bushes are habitats of tigers, bears, rabbits, weasels and wild foxes. The red fox is found here in the caves in the valleys in dwarf forests.
The wild land between Seeku Dhar, Ghandiyaal Khaal and Shrikot village is a heaven for such animals. The wild fowls, teetar, chakore, kingfisher, black magpie (kaljeenth), tailorbird, surady, and in the warm valleys humming birds are seen here. The beautiful song birds like red finch, black finch, Turtle Dove, Kaffoo, Koel, Hilaansh and laughing bird is found in the oak forests.
As far as the wildlife survey and research work is concerned some research organisation can take the bad. The habitats of the Red fox can be spotted in the wild lands of Seeku Dhar. The systematic research work can be conducted on the habitats and roaming area of the animal. The whole wild land is spread up to 3-4 kilometers. There are small patches of forests and rest is open, barren grassland with beautiful natural views.
Dhainchoos of Goginee Valley:
The Gonginee is a most beautiful valley in the Pauri Hills of Uttaranchal. Dhainchoo is a 13 inch long prey bird found in the valleys of Shivalik hills. It is dark black bird known for its shrieks. It makes nests on the traditional trees and bushes above 10 or 15 feet heights. During a survey, the nests of the birds were found in Haidaa, Khinna, Khareek, Bheunl, Guava, Bamboo, Behadaa, Amlaa and Mango trees. Besides this, long thin trees of local origin are the best known for nests in the wild of Goginee valley.
Some 35 years ago, there were a larger numbers of birds in this valley as a very small fresh water river passes through the valley. During summer the quantity of water becomes quite small. The river water remains to 3-4 inches during summer.
It is a lifeline for the fruit eating birds of the area. The flowering bushes, fruit trees and berries are abundantly found in the valley. The birds of prey and wildfowls are also found in the valley. The small songbirds, bulbul, mouse bird, Huppoe, woodpecker, turtle dove, Koel, Kaffoo, Kingfisher, and hornbills are found in the local forests. The valley is a heaven, for wild birds and small animals.
The Tigers of Daaligaad:
Daaligaad is a small forestland with 4 square km area. This unique forest has a great variety of plants, trees, bushes and herbal medicines. The orchids, ferns, mosses, wild onion, tulsi, aquatic plants, sisau, paapadee, peppermint, black peppermint and other sweet smelling plants are found here in abundance. The biological diversity of Daaligaad is rich and inspiring.
At present, there are several species of flowering plants. Some tuberous plants and herbs are found in the wild of Daaligaad. The tuberous plants, orchids, ferns and Ghanyaa (the wild vegetable), Asheen and Shakeens are some flowering bushes used as food vegetables by the villagers. The wildlife is rich and varied.
Among the mammals, mountain tigers, bears, wild boars, fox, rabbits, weasels, primates (monkeys and langoors), porcupine and wild cats are found in the bushes amidst the forests. The area of tigers is spread up to Ghora Dhungee, Daaligaad, Naagarja Dhaundaa, Gaamaath, Maroda and Jaakhnee forests in a range of 4 square km. Mostly they attack domestic animals and human beings.
Karaoon (Magpies) of Godiyoon:
The Karaoon, the true magpies in the hills are found in warm, forests and valleys of Garhwal and Kumaun (Uttaranchal). A small river generates from a very small water source here. Some bamboo and local trees from the very ancient time are a favourite place for nesting.
Karaoon mostly nests in bamboo, khareek and tall deodar trees in the forests. The places of their nests are near the river. Godiyoon Valley is a nature’s peaceful paradise. It is a mixture of agricultural fields, green lands and pastures. Nearby areas are like heathlands and wetlands provide a fertile environment for the nesting and breeding of karaoon and other small birds in the nature.
Skylarks of Haidee Dhaar:
The Shivalik hills and pastures up to 3000-4500 ft. are a haven for skylarks. The semi- temperate pastures, bushes and tall grasses with slope walls are favourite nesting areas for the skylarks. The nests are seen on the field walls or near the rock cavities surrounded by the wild grasses. The movement of skylarks is seen by telescope or by hiding under the bushes.
The insects in such grasslands are found abundantly. The wild fruits, berries and land berry fruits are found abundantly. The green pastures have a nice growth of moths, flies, grasshoppers and small insects. Global warming, increasing pollution and destruction of natural areas have made the population of skylarks vulnerable.
Teetars of Naagarja:
The Naagarja is a mountain peak at 6000 ft. The Deodar forest patches with scarce growth of pine and oak trees have made it a most beautiful place for the trekkers and explorers. It is an ideal place for the inhabitation of wild birds, teeter, chakore and wildfowls.
Some beautiful species of small birds are found in the forests, buses and stone caves. Teetars are the best song birds which are very clever and always speak out during rainy season. They hide themselves under the bushes and at the same time call their mates from the nearby bushes to assemble near a rock or huge bush to hide.
The preparation for nests goes before 10-14 days of laying eggs. The simple clay ground or bare rock ground with four-five sticks of wood or grass in the name of nest. The eggs laid are 6, 8 or 10 in numbers. The eggs are as large as the eggs domestic fowls and pure white in colour. After 10-14 days the baby chicks come out and move with their mother.
Red Finch and Black Finchs: Shilwanee:
This is the best place for the breeding of wild birds. The land is best known as heathland and is full of thorny bushes with fruits. Some of the birds despite insectivorous are fruit eaters also. There are plenty of small song birds in the barren land which make nests over the branches of bushes and some others on the walls of pastures and lay three to four eggs there. Some bird lay red eggs, some blue, some green and some brown with spots.
Sadkhet is a barren land with the rubbles and agricultural fields. The area is dotted with large trees and small bushes which create a magnificent view from the far and near. It is foothill and moisturous valley and is known for insectivorous plants. The thorny bushes and long grass creates good habitats for wild birds of this region.
The birds like chakore, wildfowls, turtle dove, teetar, kingfisher and karaoon both blue and red are found here. The small song birds are found in abundant numbers. The thorny bushes and berries remain full of fruits and small birds enjoy these during summer. Chakore gives about eight eggs in a simple nest under the bush. Sadkhet valley is popular for the habitats of chakore.
Mousebird: Dhaarkot, Bajarkhat:
The mouse bird, bulbul, tailor bird, bushfinch, turtle dove, red finch, black finch is found in large numbers. The moisturous plants and thorny bushes make a good combination and make a ground for the insect breeding. The mouse birds, bulbul, turtle dove and wildfowls catch them in large numbers. The water fowls of the area have been vanished away because of drying up the water sources.
This has created a big problem for the survival of wild birds and insects. The mouse birds are amazing birds. The birds are always jumping up and down from the wild bushes. The small forests of the bushes and dwarf trees are a natural place for their breeding. The mouse birds and bulbuls always make nests either in bush branches or on the wall cavities of the rocks.
The Beautiful Baheli Forests:
The Baheli oak and cedar forests are the oldest in this area. The pine forests also are of ancient time. The wild birds, mammals, reptiles and primates are found in the forests. Baheli is 50% grassland and 50% forestland.
The main species of the forest trees are Pinus himalayensis, deodara cedrus, myrica esculenta, rhododendron, Himlayan oak and several other plant species are found here in the wild. The pastures, valleys, forestland and grasslands are quite enjoyable during trekking. The natural areas and forests in Baheli remain most pleasant the year round.
Among the mammals are tigers, bears, wild boars, primates, foxes, rabbits, porcupines, weasels, wild cats and wild mouse are found in the forestland and grassland.
Bio-Diversity of Daaligaad Forests:
The Daaligaad forests are quite amazing for varieties of plants and trees. The whole forestland is a mixed vegetation of dwarf plants and trees. Most of them are dwarf evergreen trees with green shining leaves and white stems.
i. The Mountain Mahua Tree:
It is useful in fodder and firewood. The poisonous parts of the leaves are used to intoxicate fishes and then catching them into the river water.
ii. Shakeen and Asheen: The Flowering Bushes:
These food vegetable bushes are found in the semi-temperate zones in Shivalik hills. The flowering buds are used in making breads, namkeens and vegetable and used in food items.
iii. Ferns and Lingad:
A large number of mountain ferns are decorative plants. Some fern species are used in food vegetables from the very ancient times. The fern “lingad” are used as food vegetables. The paste of boiled lingads is mixed with flour to make breeds for food.
Orchids are most beautiful flowers. They are found in Pauri Garwhal, Pithoragarh and almost whole of Shivalik Range of Uttaranchal. Shivalik Mountains are a haven for orchids. Two types of orchid epiphytes and terrestrial are found in Shivalik hills.
Lilies are most impressive flowering plants i.e. Lily himalayensis, Lily tigris and Lily martagon.
vi. Jangli Piyaaj:
Urginea indica is a species of lily. It is a herbal medicine found in Pauri hills.
Haida is a fruit tree with sharp bitter taste is considered a medicine for cough, fever and other diseases.
Amla is a wild fruit rich in Vitamin C and is used in various medicines in India. It is also used in several food items as pickles.
It is a ficus family fruit rich in gum and Vitamins. It is said that skin diseases and cancer can be cured by this fruit.
x. Khaina: (Ficus Auriculata):
Khaina is from ficus family and is known for its sweet fruits rich in vitamins also fight cancer and skin diseases.
Tunga bushes have fruits during winter months and are used to clean stomach and skin diseases.
Dhaula are sweet flowering bushes and its flowers are used in various pickles and medicines to cure various diseases. These flowering bushes are the native plants of Shivalik hills.
xiii. Gadh Mahua:
Gadh Mahua is a dwarf, poisonous, dark green leaf tree used to kill fishes in the river although this green leafy tree is not used as fodder for catties.
The paste of Khinna leaves is also used to kill fishes in the rivers when it is mixed with river water into the form of a paste.
Surai is a cactus and used to poison fishes. It is also known as Sullu, Suru or Sulla.
Around 110 trees, plants and flowering bushes are found in the hills. These are useful for human being in the form of food vegetables, medicines and fruits. Some 14 tuberous roots, 10 orchid species, and lilies are found in the wild of Daaligaad, Uttaranchal.
The mammals, reptiles, primates, rabbits, avifauna, porcupines, weasels and other small mammals are found in Daaligaad forest area.
The birds are Teetar, chakore, wild fowls, turtle dove, Karaoon (magpie blue and red), red finch, black finch, mouse bird, bulbul, white paradise, waterfowls, blue bird, black magpie and several other beautiful birds are found in the wild of Daaligaad and surrounding small forests.
There are more than 2000 dense forest areas, scenic forests and grasslands, natural areas, some national parks in the hills of India and many more in other states of the country. All these should be protected in favour of wildlife and eco-tourism activities. Such efforts will protect our forests and also will generate foreign exchange through nature tourism, eco- tourism, and wildlife tourism in our country.